# binary_controls¶

## specifications for starting model¶

### m1¶

Initial mass of star 1 in Msun units. Not used when loading a saved model.
same caveats as `initial_mass`

in star/defaults/controls.defaults apply

```
m1 = 1.0d0
```

### m2¶

Initial mass of star 2 in Msun units. Not used when loading a saved model.
same caveats as `initial_mass`

in star/defaults/controls.defaults apply

```
m2 = 0.8d0
```

### initial_separation_in_Rsuns¶

Initial separation measured in Rsuns. Only used when `initial_period_in_days < 0`

```
initial_separation_in_Rsuns = 100
```

## controls for output¶

### history_interval¶

append an entry to the history.data file when
`mod(model_number, history_interval) = 0`

.

```
history_interval = 5
```

### append_to_star_history¶

If true, then the columns from the `binary_history`

are also included
in each of the stars history files.
NOTE: if .false., then pgstar cannot access binary data

```
append_to_star_history = .true.
```

### history_dbl_format¶

### history_int_format¶

### history_txt_format¶

Format for double, int and text in binary output

```
history_dbl_format = '(1pes32.16e3, 1x)'
history_int_format = '(i32, 1x)'
history_txt_format = '(a32, 1x)'
```

### photo_interval¶

### photo_digits¶

### photo_directory¶

These overwrite the values of `photo_interval`

, `photo_digits`

and `photo_directory`

for each
star, so that profiles are outputted simultaneously

```
photo_interval = 50
photo_digits = 3
photo_directory = 'photos'
```

### terminal_interval¶

write info to terminal when `mod(model_number, terminal_interval) = 0`

.

```
terminal_interval = 1
```

### write_header_frequency¶

output the log header info to the terminal when
`mod(model_number, write_header_frequency*terminal_interval) = 0`

.

```
write_header_frequency = 10
```

### extra_binary_terminal_output_file¶

if not empty, output terminal info to this file in addition to terminal.
this does not capture all of the terminal output – just the common items.
it is intended for use in situations where you cannot directly see the terminal
output such as when running on a cluster. if you want to be able to monitor
the progress for such cases, you can set `extra_binary_terminal_output_file = 'log'`

and then do tail -f log to view the terminal output as it is recorded in the file.

```
extra_binary_terminal_output_file = ''
```

## timestep controls¶

The terminal output during evolution includes a short string for the ‘dt_limit’. This is to give you some indication of what is limiting the time steps. Here’s a dictionary mapping those terminal strings to the corresponding control parameters. These only include limits from binary, to see the limits from star refer to star/default/controls.defaults

```
terminal output related parameter
'b_companion' timestep limited by companion
'b_RL' fr
'b_jorb' fj
'b_envelope' fm
'b_separation' fa
'b_eccentricity' fe
'b_deltam' fdm
```

### fm¶

### fm_hard¶

### fa¶

### fa_hard¶

### fr¶

### fr_hard¶

### fj¶

### fj_hard¶

### fe¶

### fe_hard¶

Timestep controls based on relative changes. After each step an upper limit is set on the timestep based on changes on different quantities. If the quantity is X and the change in one timestep dX, then this limit is given by

```
dt_next_max = dt * fX*abs(X / dX)
```

each of these controls deals with the following:

- fm: envelope mass
- fa: binary separation
- fr: change in (r-rl)/rl
- fj: change in orbital angular momentum
- fe: change in orbital eccentricity

hard limits are strictly enforced, if a timestep exceeds that limit then a retry is made.

```
fm = 0.01d0
fm_hard = -1d0
fa = 0.01d0
fa_hard = 0.02d0
fr = 0.10d0
fr_hard = -1d0
fj = 0.001d0
fj_hard = 0.01d0
fe = 0.01d0
fe_hard = -1d0
```

### fm_limit¶

### fr_limit¶

### fe_limit¶

Limits to timestep controls give by fm, fr and fe. As these three quantities evolve naturally to zero, following strictly the timestep limit given by fX would reduce timesteps infinetely. These fX_limit avoid this problem by computing the limit to the timestep as

```
dt_next_max = dt * fX*abs(max(abs(X),fX_limit) / dX)
```

If any of these `fX_limit`

is smaller than zero it is ignored.

```
fm_limit = 1d-3
fr_limit = 1d-2
fe_limit = 1d-1
```

### fdm¶

### fdm_hard¶

Limits the timestep based on the fractional mass change of either component.

```
fdm = 0.005d0
fdm_hard = 0.01d0
```

### dt_softening_factor¶

Weight factor to average `max_timestep`

with old one (in log space) as in

```
dt_next_max = 10**(dt_softening_factor*log10(dt_next_max_old) + &
(1-dt_softening_factor)*log10(dt_next_max))
```

where `dt_next_max_old`

is the limit used in the previous step. This is meant
to avoid large changes in dt. Values must be < 1 and >= 0.

```
dt_softening_factor = 0.5d0
```

### varcontrol_{stage}¶

Allows binary to set `varcontrol_target`

for each star depending on the
stage of evolution. Ignored if < 0. Each one controls the following stages,

`varcontrol_case_a`

:`varcontrol_target`

for both stars during mass transferfrom a core hydrogen burning star.

`varcontrol_case_b`

:`varcontrol_target`

for both stars during mass transferfrom a core hydrogen depleted star.

`varcontrol_ms`

:`varcontrol_target`

for a star that has not depleted core H.`varcontrol_post_ms`

:`varcontrol_target`

for a star that has depleted core H.

```
varcontrol_case_a = -1d0
varcontrol_case_b = -1d0
varcontrol_ms = -1d0
varcontrol_post_ms = -1d0
```

### dt_reduction_factor_for_j¶

When a retry happens due to the hard limit in angular momentum changes, or because the timestep produced a negative j, further multiply the timestep by this factor for the next step. This can avoid multiple retries and waste of time.

```
dt_reduction_factor_for_j = 0.1d0
```

## when to stop¶

### accretor_overflow_terminate¶

terminate evolution if (r-rl)/rl is bigger than this for accretor

```
accretor_overflow_terminate = 0.0d0
```

### terminate_if_initial_overflow¶

terminate evolution if first model of run is overflowing

```
terminate_if_initial_overflow = .true.
```

### terminate_if_L2_overflow¶

terminate evolution if there is overflow through the second Lagrangian point Amount of overflow needed to reach L2 implemented as in Marchant et al. (2016), A&A, 588, A50

```
terminate_if_L2_overflow = .false.
```

## mass transfer controls¶

### mass_transfer_*¶

Transfer efficiency controls. alpha, beta, delta and gamma parameters as described in Tauris & van den Heuvel 2006 section 16.4.1, transfer efficiency is given by 1-alpha-beta-delta.

These only affect mass that is lost from the donor due to mass transfer, winds from each star will carry away angular momentum from the vicinity of each even when transfer efficiency is unity. Each of these represent the following:

- alpha : fraction of mass lost from the vicinity of the donor as fast wind
- beta : fraction of mass lost from the vicinity of the accretor as fast wind
- delta : fraction of mass lost from circumbinary coplanar toroid
- gamma : radius of the circumbinary coplanar toroid is
`gamma**2 * orbital_separation`

```
mass_transfer_alpha = 0.0d0
mass_transfer_beta = 0.0d0
mass_transfer_delta = 0.0d0
mass_transfer_gamma = 0.0d0
```

### limit_retention_by_mdot_edd¶

Limit accretion using `mdot_edd`

. The current implementation is intended for use with
black hole accretors, as in e.g. Podsiadlowski, Rappaport & Han (2003), MNRAS, 341, 385.
For other accretors `mdot_edd`

should be set with `use_this_for_mdot_edd`

, the hook
`use_other_mdot_edd`

, or by appropriately setting `use_this_for_mdot_edd_eta`

.
Note: MESA versions equal or lower than 8118 used eta=1 and did not correct
the accreted mass for the energy lost by radiation.

If accreted material radiates an amount of energy equal to `L=eta*mtransfer_rate*clight**2`

,
then accretion is assumed to be limited to the Eddington luminosity,

```
Ledd = 4*pi*cgrav*Mbh*clight/kappa
```

which results in the Eddington mass-accretion rate

```
mdot_edd = 4*pi*cgrav*Mbh/(kappa*clight*eta)
```

the efficiency eta is determined by the properties of the last stable circular orbit, and for a BH with no initial spin it can be expressed in terms of the initial BH mass Mbh0 and the current BH mass,

```
eta = 1-sqrt(1-(Mbh/(3*Mbh0))**2)
```

for Mbh < sqrt(6) Mbh0. For BHs with initial spins different from zero, an effective Mbh0 can be computed, corresponding to the mass the black hole would have needed to have with zero spin to reach the current mass and spin.

```
limit_retention_by_mdot_edd = .false.
```

### use_es_opacity_for_mdot_edd¶

If .true., then the opacity for `mdot_edd`

is computed as 0.2*(1+X)
If .false., the opacity of the outermost cell of the donor is used

```
use_es_opacity_for_mdot_edd = .true.
```

### use_this_for_mdot_edd_eta¶

Fixed `mdot_edd_eta`

, if negative, eta will be computed consistently as material is accreted.
Values should be between ~0.06-0.42, the minimum corresponding to a BH with spin parameter a=0, and the maximum to a=1.

```
use_this_for_mdot_edd_eta = -1
```

### use_radiation_corrected_transfer_rate¶

If true, then reduce the increase in mass of the BH to account for the radiated energy `eta*mtransfer_rate_clight**2`

so that in a timestep

```
delta_Mbh = (1-eta)*mass_transfer_rate*dt
```

```
use_radiation_corrected_transfer_rate = .true.
```

### initial_bh_spin¶

Initial spin parameter of the black hole “a”. Must be between 0 and 1. Evolution of BH spin is done with eq. (6) of King & Kolb (1999), MNRAS, 305, 654

```
initial_bh_spin = 0
```

### mdot_scheme¶

How to compute mass transfer. Options are:

- “Ritter” : Ritter 1988, A&A, 202, 93
- “Kolb” : Optically thick overflow of Kolb & Ritter 1990, A&A, 236, 385
- “roche_lobe” : Set mass transfer rate such that the donor remains inside
- its Roche lobe. Only works implicitly.

- “contact” : Extends the roche_lobe scheme to include contact systems as in
- Marchant et al. (2016), A&A, 588, A50

```
mdot_scheme = 'Ritter'
```

#### explicit mass transfer computation.¶

MESA can compute mass transfer rates either explicitly (at the beggining
of the step) or implicitly (iterating the solution until the mass transfer
rate matches the value computed at the end of the step). The explicit method
is used if `max_tries_to_achieve <= 0`

.

### cur_mdot_frac¶

Average the explicit mass transfer rate computed with the old in order to smooth large changes.

```
mass_transfer = mass_transfer_old * cur_mdot_frac + (1-cur_mdot_frac) * mass_transfer
```

```
cur_mdot_frac = 0.5d0
```

### max_explicit_abs_mdot¶

Limit the explicit mass transfer rate to `max_explicit_abs_mdot`

, in Msun/secyer

```
max_explicit_abs_mdot = 1d-7
```

#### implicit mass transfer computation.¶

### max_tries_to_achieve¶

The implicit method will modify the mass transfer rate and redo the step until
it either finds a solution, or the number of tries goes above `max_tries_to_achieve`

.
if `max_tries_to_achieve <= 0`

the explicit method is used.

```
max_tries_to_achieve = 20
```

### solver_type¶

Method use to solve for mass transfer. The solver first attempts to increase or reduce the mass transfer rate used through the step until finding an upper and lower limit to it. This controls what is done after that point. Options are:

- “cubic” : Given an upper and lower limit, plus a new try in between,
- the root of the equation is estimated by using a cubic matching the three points.

- “bisect” : Simply takes the average of the boundaries for the next try
- “both” : Alternates between cubic and bisect each iteration

```
solver_type = 'both'
```

### implicit_scheme_tolerance¶

Tolerance for which a solution is considered valid. For the Ritter and Kolb schemes if we call mdot the mass transfer rate used for the step, and mdot_end the one computed at the end of it, a solution is valid if

```
abs((mdot-mdot_end)/mdot_end) < b% implicit_scheme_tolerance
```

For the roche_lobe scheme, a solution will be considered valid if

-implicit_scheme_tolerance < (r-rl)/rl < 0

When using the roche_lobe scheme smaller values of order 1d-3 or smaller are recommended.

```
implicit_scheme_tolerance = 1d-2
```

### implicit_scheme_tiny_factor¶

During the implicit scheme the solution is bracketed between a minimum and a maximum value mdot_hi and mdot_lo. Even if the desired tolerance is not achieved, the solution is accepted if the difference between abs(mdot_hi-mdot_lo) is smaller than implicit_scheme_tiny_factor*min(abs(mdot_hi),abs(mdot_lo))

```
implicit_scheme_tiny_factor = 1d-6
```

### initial_change_factor¶

### change_factor_fraction¶

### implicit_lambda¶

The implicit scheme works by adjusting the mass transfer rate from the previous
step until it finds a solution. If the mass transfer needs to increase/reduce after
a try, then it is multiplied/divided by `change_factor`

. `initial_change_factor`

provides
the initial value for this parameter, however, since at certain points the mass
transfer rate will increase steeply and at others remain mostly constant from step
to step, MESA adjusts the value of the change factor to make it easier to find
solutions. Whenever the mass transfer rate changes from the previous value, MESA
will modify the `change_factor`

according to:

```
if(mass_transfer_rate < mass_transfer_prev) then
change_factor = change_factor*(1.0-implicit_lambda) &
+ implicit_lambda*(1+change_factor_fraction*(mass_transfer_rate/mass_transfer_prev-1))
else
change_factor = change_factor*(1.0-implicit_lambda) &
+ implicit_lambda*(1+change_factor_fraction*(mass_transfer_prev/mass_transfer_rate-1))
change_factor = change_factor*(1.0-implicit_lambda) &
+ implicit_lambda*(1+change_factor_fraction*(mass_transfer_rate/mass_transfer_prev-1))
end if
```

Choosing `implicit_lambda = 0`

will keep the change factor constant.

```
initial_change_factor = 1.5d0
change_factor_fraction = 0.9d0
implicit_lambda = 0.25d0
```

### max_change_factor¶

### min_change_factor¶

Maximum and minimum values for the `change_factor`

```
max_change_factor = 1.5d0
min_change_factor = 1.05d0
```

### num_tries_for_increase_change_factor¶

### change_factor_increase¶

If after every `num_tries_for_increase_change_factor`

iterations the implicit scheme does not have upper
and lower bounds for the mass transfer rate, multiply `change_factor`

by `change_factor_increase`

. Ignored if
`num_tries_for_increase_change_factor < 1`

. Increase is limited to `max_change_factor`

.

```
num_tries_for_increase_change_factor = 20
change_factor_increase = 1.1d0
```

### starting_mdot¶

When using the `roche_lobe`

scheme, if the donor overflows for the first time
use `starting_mdot`

(in Msun/secyer) as an initial guess for the mass transfer rate.

```
starting_mdot = 1d-12
```

### roche_min_mdot¶

When using the `roche_lobe`

scheme, if mass transfer rate is below `roche_min_mdot`

(in Msun/secyer) and the donor is not overflowing its roche lobe, assume detachment
and stop mass transfer.

```
roche_min_mdot = 1d-16
```

### min_mdot_for_implicit¶

For any choice except for the `roche_lobe`

scheme mass transfer will be computed explicitly
until the explicit computation of mdot is > `min_mdot_for_implicit`

(in Msun/secyer),
even if `max_tries_to_achieve`

> 0. This is to avoid spending many iterations when the stars
are detached and the explicit calculation gives very low values of mdot.

```
min_mdot_for_implicit = 1d-16
```

### max_implicit_abs_mdot¶

Limit the implicit mass transfer rate to `max_implicit_abs_mdot`

, in Msun/secyer

```
max_implicit_abs_mdot = 1d99
```

### report_rlo_solver_progress¶

Set true to see info about the iterations to compute mass transfer from RLOF

```
report_rlo_solver_progress = .false.
```

#### Tidal wind enhancement¶

### do_enhance_wind_*¶

Use the Tout & Eggleton mechanism to tidally enhance the wind mass loss from one or both components according to:

Mdot_w = Mdot_w * ( 1 + B_wind * min( (R/RL)^6, 0.5^6 ) )

Tout & Eggleton 1988,MNRAS,231,823 (eq. 2)

“_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
do_enhance_wind_1 = .false.
do_enhance_wind_2 = .false.
```

### tout_B_wind_*¶

The `B_wind`

parameter from the previous equation. Default value is
taken from Tout & Eggleton 1988,MNRAS,231,823

“_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
tout_B_wind_1 = 1d4
tout_B_wind_2 = 1d4
```

#### Wind mass accretion¶

### do_wind_mass_transfer_*¶

transfer part of the mass lost due to stellar winds from the mass losing component to its companion. Using the Bondi-Hoyle mechanism. “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
do_wind_mass_transfer_1 = .false.
do_wind_mass_transfer_2 = .false.
```

### wind_BH_alpha_*¶

Bondi-Hoyle accretion parameter for each star. The default is 3/2 taken from Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897, in agreement with Boffin & Jorissen 1988, A&A, 205, 155 “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
wind_BH_alpha_1 = 1.5d0
wind_BH_alpha_2 = 1.5d0
```

### max_wind_transfer_fraction_*¶

Upper limit on the wind transfer fraction for star * “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
max_wind_transfer_fraction_1 = 0.5d0
max_wind_transfer_fraction_2 = 0.5d0
```

## orbital jdot controls¶

### do_jdot_ml¶

Include loss of angular momentum via mass loss. The parameters
`mass_transfer_*`

determine the fractions of mass lost from the vincinity
of the donor, the accretor, or a circumbinary coplanar toroid.

```
do_jdot_ml = .true.
```

### do_jdot_ls¶

Fix jdot such that the total angular momentum of the system is conserved, except for loses due to other jdot mechanisms, or angular momentum loss from winds. This is meant to take care of L-S coupling due to tides.

```
do_jdot_ls = .true.
```

### do_jdot_missing_wind¶

Usually MESA computes stellar AM loss due to winds by taking the angular momentum from
the removed layers of the star. However, when mass transfer is included, wind mass
loss and mass accretion are added up, and only the remainder, if corresponding to
net mass loss, contributes to stellar AM loss. `jdot_missing_wind`

compensates for this,
by removing from the orbit an amount of angular momentum equal to the mass lost
that does not contribute to stellar AM loss, times the specific angular momentum
at the surface.

```
do_jdot_missing_wind = .false.
```

### do_jdot_mb¶

Include magnetic braking as in Rappaport, Verbunt, and Joss. apj, 275, 713-731. 1983.

```
do_jdot_mb = .true.
```

### include_accretor_mb¶

If true, the contribution to jdot from magnetic braking of the accretor is also taken into account.

```
include_accretor_mb = .false.
```

### jdot_mb_min_qconv_env¶

### jdot_mb_max_qconv_env¶

### jdot_mb_max_qconv_core¶

### jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_rad_core¶

### jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_conv_env¶

Conditions for magnetic braking to operate. Magnetic braking is turned off if any of these do not apply. The mass fraction of the convective envelope has to be > jdot_mb_min_qconv_env. The mass fraction of the convective envelope has to be < jdot_mb_max_qconv_env. The mass fraction of the convective core has to be < jdot_mb_max_qconv_core. Here by mass fraction we refer to the mass of the respective zone divided by the total mass of the star. To compute the mass in the envelope we add all convective layers down to jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_conv_env, and keep adding layers downwards until we reach a non-convective zone. This is because the very outermost cell is likely radiative. A similar thing is done for the core with jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_rad_core. For full details check binary_jdot.f90.

```
jdot_mb_min_qconv_env = 1d-6
jdot_mb_max_qconv_env = 0.99d0
jdot_mb_max_qconv_core = 1d-2
jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_rad_core = 1d-3
jdot_mb_qlim_for_check_conv_env = 0.999d0
```

### jdot_mb_scale_for_low_qconv_env¶

### jdot_mb_mass_frac_for_scale¶

If jdot_mb_scale_for_low_qconv_env is .true., scale down jdot_mb if mass fraction of the convective envelope is below jdot_mb_mass_frac_for_scale. (Podsiadlowski et al. 2002, The Astrophysical Journal, Volume 565, Issue 2, pp. 1107-1133)

```
jdot_mb_scale_for_low_qconv_env = .true.
jdot_mb_mass_frac_for_scale = 0.02d0
```

### jdot_multiplier¶

Multiply total jdot by this factor.
NOTE: `jdot_ls`

is not affected by this.

```
jdot_multiplier = 1d0
```

## rotation and sync controls¶

### do_j_accretion¶

If true, compute accretion of angular momentum following A.3.3 of de Mink et al. 2013, ApJ, 764, 166. Otherwise, incoming material is assumed to have the specific angular momentum of the surface of the accretor.

```
do_j_accretion = .false.
```

### sync_type_*¶

Timescale for orbital synchronisation. “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one. Options are:

- “Instantaneous” : Keep the star synced to the orbit.
- “Orb_period” : Sync in the timescale of the orbital period.
- “Hut_conv” : Sync timescale following Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897
- for convective envelopes.

- “Hut_rad” : Sync timescale following Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897
- for radiative envelopes.

- “None” : No sync for this star.

```
sync_type_1 = 'Hut_conv'
sync_type_2 = 'Hut_conv'
```

### sync_mode_*¶

Where angular momentum is deposited for synchronization. “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one. Options are:

- “Uniform” : Each layer is synced independently given the sync timescale.

```
sync_mode_1 = 'Uniform'
sync_mode_2 = 'Uniform'
```

### Ftid_*¶

Tidal strength factor. Synchronisation and circularisation timescales are divided by this. “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
Ftid_1 = 1d0
Ftid_2 = 1d0
```

### do_initial_orbit_sync_*¶

Relax rotation of star to orbital period at the beggining of evolution. “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

```
do_initial_orbit_sync_1 = .false.
do_initial_orbit_sync_2 = .false.
```

### tidal_reduction¶

`tidal_reduction`

accounts for the reduction in the effectiveness of convective
damping of the equilibrium tide when the tidal forcing period is less than the
convective turnover period of the largest eddies. It corresponds to the exponent
in eq. (32) of Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897

`tidal_reduction`

= 1 follows Zahn(1966, 1989), while `tidal_reduction`

= 2 follows
Goldreich & Nicholson (1977).

```
tidal_reduction = 2.0d0
```

## eccentricity controls¶

### circ_type_*¶

Mechanism for circularisation. Options are: “_1” refers to first star, “_2” to the second one.

- “Hut_conv” : Circ timescale following Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897
- for convective envelopes.

- “Hut_rad” : Circ timescale following Hurley et al. 2002, MNRAS, 329, 897
- for radiative envelopes.

- “None” : no tidal circularisation

```
circ_type_1 = 'Hut_conv'
circ_type_2 = 'Hut_conv'
```

### use_eccentricity_enhancement¶

Flag to turn on Soker eccentricity enhancement

```
use_eccentricity_enhancement = .false.
```

### max_abs_edot_tidal¶

Maximum absolute value for tidal edot (in 1/s). If the computed tidal edot goes above this, then it is fixed at this maximum

```
max_abs_edot_tidal = 1d-6
```

### max_abs_edot_enhance¶

Maximum absolute value for eccentricity enhancement (in 1/s). If the computed edot goes above this, then it is fixed at this maximum

```
max_abs_edot_enhance = 1d-6
```

### min_eccentricity¶

If after a step `eccentricity < min_eccentricity`

, then fix it at this value

```
min_eccentricity = 0.0d0
```

### max_eccentricity¶

If after a step `eccentricity > max_eccentricity`

, then fix it at this value

```
max_eccentricity = 0.99d0
```

### anomaly_steps¶

For phase dependent processes, the orbit is divided into this number of steps in the true anomaly, to integrate through a full orbit and obtain the secular changes

```
anomaly_steps = 500
```

## irradiation controls¶

### accretion_powered_irradiation¶

Flag to turn on irradiation of the donor due to accretion onto a compact object.

```
accretion_powered_irradiation = .false.
```

### col_depth_for_eps_extra¶

Energy from irradiation will be deposited in the outer
`4*Pi*R^2*col_depth_for_eps_extra`

grams of the star.

```
col_depth_for_eps_extra = -1
```

### use_accretor_luminosity_for_irrad¶

Flag to turn on irradiation based on the luminosity of the accretor and binary
separation. Requires `evolve_both_stars = .true.`

in binary_job inlist.

```
use_accretor_luminosity_for_irrad = .false.
```

### irrad_flux_at_std_distance¶

### std_distance_for_irradiation¶

If `irrad_flux_at_std_distance > 0`

then irradiation flux is computed as

```
s% irradiation_flux = b% irrad_flux_at_std_distance * &
(b% std_distance_for_irradiation/b% separation)**2
```

```
irrad_flux_at_std_distance = -1
std_distance_for_irradiation = -1
```

## common envelope controls (EXPERIMENTAL, DON’T USE)¶

### CE_alpha_core¶

Efficiency at which the change of energy in the core of the star contributes to envelope ejection.

```
CE_alpha_core = 0d0
```

### CE_mass_loss_rate_high¶

Upper mass loss rate imposed during CE in Msun/yr

```
CE_mass_loss_rate_high = 1d-1
```

### CE_mass_loss_rate_low¶

Lower mass loss rate imposed during CE in Msun/yr

```
CE_mass_loss_rate_low = 1d-6
```

### CE_rel_rlo_for_detachment¶

Consider the CE phase terminated when (r-rl)/rl < -CE_rel_rlo_for_detachment Between (r-rl)/rl = 0d0 and (r-rl)/rl = -CE_rel_rlo_for_detachment the mass loss rate is adjusted between CE_mass_loss_rate_high and CE_mass_loss_rate_low.

```
CE_rel_rlo_for_detachment = 0.02d0
```

### CE_years_detached_to_terminate¶

During CE, if the star spends this amount of time detached, terminate CE even if CE_rel_rlo_for_detachment has not been reached. If set to a large number mass loss will only stop when the star definetely wants to detach. If set to a low number system will likely switch to stable mass transfer.

```
CE_years_detached_to_terminate = 1d-1
```

### CE_begin_at_max_implicit_abs_mdot¶

If true, initiate a common envelope phase when max_implicit_abs_mdot is reached

```
CE_begin_at_max_implicit_abs_mdot = .false.
```

### CE_xa_diff_to_terminate¶

If the absolute difference between central and surface mass fractions of H and He is below this, terminate the simulation. This is to stop the simulation once the entire envelope has been removed

```
CE_xa_diff_to_terminate = 0.01d0
```

### CE_terminate_when_core_overflows¶

Terminate if, for the current orbital separation, the radius at the point where CE_xa_diff_to_terminate applies would overflow its Roche lobe

```
CE_terminate_when_core_overflows = .true.
```

### CE_min_period_in_days¶

Terminate the simulation if the period is below this during CE used to terminate the simulation early in cases where a merger would be expected.

```
CE_min_period_in_minutes = 5d0
```

### CE_energy_factor_HII_toHI¶

Recombination energy for ionized hydrogen will be multiplied by this factor when computing the energy.

```
CE_energy_factor_HII_toHI = 1d0
```

### CE_energy_factor_HeII_toHeI¶

Recombination energy for singly ionized helium will be multiplied by this factor when computing the energy.

```
CE_energy_factor_HeII_toHeI = 1d0
```

### CE_energy_factor_HeIII_toHeII¶

Recombination energy for doubly ionized helium will be multiplied by this factor when computing the energy.

```
CE_energy_factor_HeIII_toHeII = 1d0
```

### CE_energy_factor_H2¶

Dissociation energy for molecular hydrogen will be multiplied by this factor when computing the energy.

```
CE_energy_factor_H2 = 0d0
```

### CE_fixed_lambda¶

For comparison to rapid-pop-synth, if this is larger than zero, then compute the binding energy from this value of lambda rather than by integrating through the envelope

```
CE_fixed_lambda = -1d0
```

## miscellaneous controls¶

### keep_donor_fixed¶

keep star 1 as donor, even if accretor is closer to filling roche lobe

```
keep_donor_fixed = .true.
```

### mdot_limit_donor_switch¶

Do not change donor if mass transfer is larger than this (given in Msun/secyer). Avoids erratic changes when both stars are filling their roche loches.

```
mdot_limit_donor_switch = 1d-20
```

### use_other_{hook}¶

Logicals to deploy the use_other routines.

```
use_other_rlo_mdot = .false.
use_other_check_implicit_rlo = .false.
use_other_implicit_function_to_solve = .false.
use_other_tsync = .false.
use_other_sync_spin_to_orbit = .false.
use_other_mdot_edd = .false.
use_other_adjust_mdots = .false.
use_other_accreted_material_j = .false.
use_other_jdot_gr = .false.
use_other_jdot_ml = .false.
use_other_jdot_ls = .false.
use_other_jdot_missing_wind = .false.
use_other_jdot_mb = .false.
use_other_extra_jdot = .false.
use_other_binary_wind_transfer = .false.
use_other_edot_tidal = .false.
use_other_edot_enhance = .false.
use_other_extra_edot = .false.
use_other_CE_init = .false.
use_other_CE_rlo_mdot = .false.
use_other_CE_binary_evolve_step = .false.
use_other_CE_binary_finish_step = .false.
use_other_e2 = .false.
```